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Lesson of Japanese No.15


vocabulaire-japonais




元気
天気
家族

いい
悪い
どこか
けど
ピアノ
泳ぐ
できる
思う
Toki
Genki
Tenki
Kazoku
Umi
Ii
Warui
Dokoka
Kedo
Piano
Oyogu
Dekiru
Omou
Time (length, duration)
Healthy/health/I'm fine.
Weather
Family
Sea
Good/fine/nice
Bad
Somewhere
But
Piano
To swim
To be able to (can)
To think


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



- 本田さん、元気ですか。

- あ、山田さん、こんにちは。元気ですよ。今日どこかへ行きますか。

- 今日は天気がいいですから家族と海へ行きます。

- そっか、いいですね海。

- 本田さんは泳ぐことができますか。

- うんん、子どもの時いっぱい泳ぎましたけどもうできないと思います。
- Honda san, genki desu ka.

- A, Yamada san, konnichiwa. Genki desu yo. Kyou dokoka e ikimasu ka.

- Kyou wa tenki ga ii desu kara kazoku to umi e ikimasu.

- Sokka, ii desu ne umi.

- Honda san wa oyogukoto ga dekimasu ka.

- Unn, kodomo no toki ippai oyogimashita kedo mou dekinai to omoimasu.



- ''Are you fine, Mr Honda?''
- ''Ah, Mr Yamada, hello. I'm fine! Today, do you go somewhere?''
- ''Today, the weather is nice, so I will go to the beach (sea) with my family.''
- ''I see. You are lucky.'' (Literally: I see. It's nice, the sea.)
- ''You are able to swim, Mr Honda?''
- ''Hum...When I was a kid, I was swimming a lot, but I think that I am not able to do it anymore.''


grammaire-japonais

''時'' (toki): when

We use ''時'' to indicate the time when something happens. There can be a lot of translations for it in English such as "while" or "during" (during the war), "when" (when I go to work), etc.


With a noun

We use the noun + no + toki.




- 子どもの時
- Kodomo no toki.
- When I was a kid... (Literally: At the time of my childhood...)


With a verb

We use the verb at its informal form + toki.



- 食べる
- When we eat...

- 聞きたい
- When we want to ask...


With an "i" adjective

We use the adjective + toki.




- 天気がいい
- When the weather is nice...


With a "na" adjective

We use the adjective + na + toki.




- 有名な時
- When we are famous...


''けど'' (kedo): but



- 安いけどかわいくない。
- Yasui kedo kawaikunai.
- It's cheap, but it's not pretty.

We use ''けど'' at the end of a clause, never (or rather on seldom occasions) at the beginning of a sentence or after a comma. It is similar to ''が'' (see course No.8), but the latest is being used when writing or in a formal context, when ''けど'' is being used in an informal context.

We saw that ''でも'' (see course No.6) also meant "but". This particle is at the same level of politeness than ''けど'', but it is being used at the beginning of a sentence.


''できる'' (dekiru): to be able to (can)

At the formal(polite) form



- 今話すことできますか。
- Now, can you talk?

- 今話すことできません
- Now, I can not talk.


At the informal form




- ピアノできる
- I'm able to play piano.

- ピアノできない
- I'm not able to play piano.


''と思う'' (to omou): to think

At the formal(polite) form

With a verb

We use the verb at its informal form, followed by "と思います".




- 帰ると思います
- I think that I will go back.

- できると思います
- I think that I can.


With an "i"adjective

We use the adjective, directly followed by "と思います".




- 高いと思います
- I think that it is expensive.


With a "na" adjective

We use the adjective, followed by "da" and then, "と思います".




- あの人は有名と思います
- I think that the person over there is famous.


With a noun

We use the noun, followed by "da" and then, "と思います".




- ピエールの車と思います
- I think that it is Peter's car.


At the informal form

The rules are the same as the ones for the formal(polite) form, but this time, we use "と思う" and not the ''-masu'' form.




- 帰ると思う
- I think I will go back.


Note : In the text, we have the expression "できないと思います". It is translated into "I think that I can't." To think not to do something, for instance, "I think that I won't go.", is being formed with the ''-nai'' form of the verb + と思います. The ''-nai'' form will be seen in the next course.


''もう'' (mou): already, not anymore

When we use ''もう'' with a verb at the positive form, ''もう'' means "already".




- もう5時ですよ。
- It's already 5 o'clock!

- もう食べましたか。
- You already ate?


When we use ''もう''with a verb at the negative form, ''もう'' means "not anymore".




- もうできません。
- I am not able anymore.

- 今はもう思いません。
- Now, I do not think that anymore.