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Lesson of Japanese No.18


vocabulaire-japonais



パーティー
誕生日
今週
食べ物
飲み物
全部
プレゼント
あげる
集める
お金
パソコン
すごい
でしょう
Pâtî
Tanjoubi
Konshuu
Tabemono
Nomimono
Zenbu
Purezento
Ageru
Atsumeru
Okane
Pasokon
Sugoi
Deshou
Party
Birthday
This week
Food
Beverage
All
Gift
To give
To collect/to assemble/to gather
Cash/money
Computer
Super
Isn't it?/Right?


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



- キムさんの誕生日は今週の金曜日でしょう。

- うん。

- パーティーの準備はできた?

- できたよ。食べ物も飲み物も全部買ったよ。

- そっか。プレゼントは?

- それも買ったよ。

- 何をあげるの?

- 皆で集めたお金でパソコンを買った。

- わあ、すごいね。
- Kimu san no tanjoubi wa konshuu no kinyoubi deshou.

- Un.

- Pâtî no junbi wa dekita?

- Dekita yo. Tabemono mo nomimono mo zenbu katta yo.

- Sokka. Purezento wa?

- Sore mo katta yo.

- Nani wo ageru no?

- Minna de atsumeta okane de pasokon wo katta.

- Waa, sugoi ne.



- ''Kim's birthday is this Friday, right?''
- ''Yes.''
- ''The party preparations are done?''
- ''Yes. We bought all the food and beverages.''
- ''I see. What about the gift?''
- ''That too, we bought it!''
- ''What will you give her?''
- ''With the money gathered by everybody, we bought a computer.''
- ''Oh! Super!''


grammaire-japonais

The particle ''で'' (de): the way to do the things

The particle ''で'' indicates the way to do something. It answers to the question "How?" or "With what?"




- 皆行きました。
- Minna de ikimashita.
- We went all together.

- フランス語聞きました。
- Furansugo de kikimashita.
- I asked him in French.

In the same way, this particle also indicates how we communicate (which media is used) or go somewhere.




- 車来る。
- Kuruma de kuru.
- I come by car.

- テレビ見ました。
- Terebi de mimashita.
- I saw it on television.


The particle ''の'' (no): the ''gentle'' question

We use the particle ''の'' at the end of a sentence instead of the particle ''か'' to make the question less ''hard''. The particle ''の'' is being used by the women or the kids, but not by the men. Note that ''の'' is being used most of the time after the informal form of a verb.




- どこに行く
- Doko ni iku no?
- Where do you go?

- もう食べない
- Mou tabenai no?
- You don't eat anymore?


The ''-ta'' form of the verb

The ''-ta'' form is the ''past informal'' form of the verb. It is equivalent to the ''-mashita'' form (see course No.4), just like the ''dictionary'' form is equivalent to the ''-masu'' form of the verb.

The polite (formal) form

食べます / 食べました (to eat/to have eaten)

The informal form

食べる / 食べ (to eat/to have eaten)


The way to get the ''-nai'' form is different for each group of verbs.

The verbs of the 3rd group

- する (suru) => します (shimasu) => しました (shimashita) => し (shita)

- 来る (kuru) => 来ます (kimasu) => 来ました (kimashita) => 来 (kita)




- 英語を勉強し
- Eigo wo benkyou shita.
- I studied English.


The verbs of the 2nd group

It's very simple: We simply replace "-ru" with "-ta".

- 食べ (taberu) => 食べ (tabeta)

- 慣れ (nareru) => 慣れ (nareta)

- あげ (ageru) => あげ (ageta)




- 日本の食べ物に慣れ
- Nihon no tabemono ni nareta.
- I got used to the Japanese food.


The verbs of the 1st group

Each of the 9 endings in the 1st group is different.

- 買 (kau) => 買った (katta)

- 聞 (kiku) => 聞いた (kiita)

- 脱 (nugu) => 脱いだ (nuida)

- 遊 (asobu) => 遊んだ (asonda)

- 読 (yomu) => 読んだ (yonda)

- 話 (hanasu) => 話した (hanashita)

- 待 (matsu) => 待った (matta)

- 死 (shinu) => 死んだ (shinda)

- 帰 (kaeru) => 帰った (kaetta)




- 有名な人が死んだ
- Yuumei na hito ga shinda.
- A famous person died.


The past negative form

We get it from the ''-nai'' form of the verb (see course No. 16).

''-nai'' => ''-nakatta''




- パーティーに行かなかった
- Pâtî ni ikanakatta.
- I didn't go to the party.

- 僕の家にパソコンがなかった
- Boku no ie ni pasokon ga nakatta.
- There was no computer in my house.


The relative subordinate clause

"Relative subordinate clause" is a slightly complex expression, but the grammar notion itself is rather simple. That clause gives an information about a noun or a nominal group. It answers to the question "What?", "Who?", ''Whom?'' or ''Which?''




- 昨日見た映画。
- Kinou mita eiga.
- The movie that I watched yesterday

- 明日へ行くデパートは新しいです。
- Ashita e iku depâto wa atarashii desu.
- The shopping mall where we will go tomorrow is new.

- 皆で集めたお金。
- Minna de atsumeta okane.
- The moneygathered by everybody

Note : The relative subordinate clause is always preceding the noun, like an adjective. The verb used is generally at the informal form.

lecture-japonais


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