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Lesson of Japanese No.22


vocabulaire-japonais



昔々



住む
お父さん
嬉しい



白い
自分
自分の
しか
直ぐに
乗る
そして
世界
発見する
早い
むかしむかし
ところ
さい
やま
すむ
おとうさん
うれしい
かお
うま

しろい
じぶん
じぶんの
しか
すぐに
のる
そして
せかい
はっけんする
はやい
Mukashi mukashi
Tokoro
Sai
Yama
Sumu
Otousan
Ureshii
Kao
Uma
Hi
Shiroi
Jibun
Jibun no
Shika
Suguni
Noru
Soshite
Sekai
Hakken suru
Hayai
Once upon a time...
Place
Age/year(s) (of age)
Mountain
To reside
Father
Happy
Face (person)
Horse
Day
White
Myself/oneself...
Your/your own
Only
Immediately
To mount (a horse, bicycle...)/ to ride on (a car...)
Then/...and now...
World
To discover
Fast/early


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



昔々あるところに12歳の男の子がいました。この子は家族と山に住んでいました。

ある日お父さんは息子にプレゼントをあげました。このプレゼントを見た時男の子はすごく嬉しそうな顔をしました。それは馬でした。白くてきれいな馬でした。今まで男の子は友達がいませんでした。山に自分の家族しかいませんでしたから。

男の子は直ぐに馬に乗りました。そして馬に「一緒に新しい世界を発見しよう」と言いました。
むかしむかしあるところに12さいのおとこのこがいました。このこはかぞくとやまにすんでいました。

あるひおとうさんはむすこにプレゼントをあげました。このプレゼントをみたときおとこのこはすごくうれしそうなかおをしました。それはうまでした。しろくてきれいなうまでした。いままでおとこのこはともだちがいませんでした。やまにじぶんのかぞくしかいませんでしたから。

おとこのこはすぐにうまにのりました。そしてうまに「いっしょにあたらしいせかいをはっけんしよう」といいました。


Once upon a time, there was a 12 years old boy who was living in the mountain with his family.

Someday, his father gave him a present. After he saw this present, he looked really happy.(Literally: His face looked really happy.) It was a horse. It was a pretty white horse. Until now, this kid had never had friends because only his own family was in the mountain.

Then, this kid immediately mounted the horse. Then, he told his horse: ''Let's discover a new world together.''


grammaire-japonais

''しか'' (shika): only and ''だけ'' (dake): just

We use ''しか'' or ''だけ'' when there is a limitation. There are two big differences between those two words. The first one is related to the form and the second one, to the meaning.

• The difference related to the form is the following one: ''だけ'' is always being used in a positive form sentence when ''しか'' is being used in a negative form sentence.




- これだけ食べます

- これしか食べません

• The difference related to the meaning is the following one: ''しか'' has a negative meaning when ''だけ'' is being used in a neutral or positive context.

- これだけ食べます
- I just eat this.

- これしか食べません
- I only eat this. (Literally: I don't eat anything else than this.)

- それだけでいい。
- This is sufficient. (Literally: Just with this, it's good.)

- このコンビニしかない。
- There is nothing else than this convenience store.


The particle ''と'' (to)

We use the particle ''と'' to quote.




- 「おいしい」言いました。
- He said that it was good. or:''It is good.'' he said.

- 「いつ帰るの」聞きました。
- She asked when he would return. or:''When will you return.'' she asked.

Note that in some informal cases, we can replace ''と'' with ''って'', but it implies that we have previously heard the sentence.




- 来ない言った。
- 来ないって言った。

- He said that he wouldn't come.


''に - を - あげる'' (ni-wo-ageru): to give to



- 私友達プレゼントあげます。
- I give a present to a friend.

The particle ''を'' shows where the direct object complement is in the sentence and the particle ''に'' shows where the indirect object complement is in the sentence (see course No.17).


The ''-ku'' form of the ''i'' adjectives

We replace the final ''i'' of an ''i'' adjective with ''-ku'' to turn it into an adverb.




(hayai) => rapid/fast
(hayaku) => rapidly

優し (yasashii) => kind
優し (yasashiku) => kindly

すご (sugoi) => super/great
すご (sugoku) => greatly

- 早来てください。 「はやくきてください。」
- Come rapidly please.

- ブノアさんはすごいい人だと思う。 「ブノアさんはすごくいいひとだとおもう。」
- I think that Ben is really a great person.


Exception

The ''-ku'' form of the adjective ''いい'' is ''よく''.




- よくできました。
- You did it well. (Literally: You were able to do it well.)


Be careful not to mistake it for the ''よく'' that means ''often'' (see course No.3).




The ''-ou/-you'' form of the verb

The ''-ou/-you'' form is the informal version of the ''-mashou'' form (see course No.6). They are both difficult notions to explain. They mean ''Let's do that...'', ''Let's go...'', ''Let's sleep...'' and so long.


The verbs of the 3rd group

- す (suru) => しよう (shiyou)

- 来 (kuru) => 来よう (koyou)


The verbs of the 2nd group

It is very simple: We simply replace the "-ru" with "-you".

- 食べ (taberu) => 食べよう (tabeyou)

- 見 (miru) => 見よう (miyou)

- あげ (ageru) => あげよう (ageyou)


The verbs of the 1st group

Each of the nine endings of the verbs in the 1st group is different.

- 言 (iu) => 言おう (iou)

- 行 (iku) => 行こう (ikou)

- 脱 (nugu) => 脱ごう (nugou)

- 遊 (asobu) => 遊ぼう (asobou)

- 住 (sumu) => 住もう (sumou)

- 探 (sagasu) => 探そう (sagasou)

- 待 (matsu) => 待とう (matou)

- 死 (shinu) => 死のう (shinou)

- 乗 (noru) => 乗ろう (norou)




- 行こう
- Let's go!

- タクシーに乗ろう
- Let's take a taxi.

- 一緒に勉強しよう
- Let's study together.