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Lesson of Japanese No.6

vocabulaire-japonais



昨日
友達
デパート
何か
何も
でも
今晩
また
一緒に
買います
ドイツ
Kinou
Tomodachi
Depâto
Nanika
Nanimo
Demo
Konban
Mata
Issho ni
Kaimasu
Doitsu
Yesterday
Friend (both genders)
Shopping mall
Something
Nothing
But
Tonight
Again
Together
Buy
Germany


ecriture-japonais



texte-japonais



明子:
昨日何をしましたか。

華子:
友達とデパートへ行きましたよ。

明子:
そうですか。何か買いましたか。

華子:
何も買いませんでした。でも今晩また行きますよ。一緒に行きましょう。

明子:
そうしましょう。
Akiko:
Kinou nani wo shimashita ka.

Hanako :
Tomodachi to depâto e ikimashita yo.

Akiko :
Sou desu ka. Nanika kaimashita ka.

Hanako :
Nanimo kaimasen deshita. Demo konban mata ikimasu yo. Issho ni ikimashou.

Akiko :
Sou shimashou.
Akiko:
''What did you do yesterday?''

Hanako:
''I went to the shopping mall with some friends.''

Akiko:
''Oh yes? You bought something?''

Hanako:
''No, I did not buy anything(I bought nothing), but tonight, I will go back.(I will go again.) Let's go together.''

Akiko:
''Ok, let's do it that way.''


grammaire-japonais

The particle ''と'' (to) : with



- だれ行きましたか。
- Dare to ikimashita ka.
- With whom did you go?

- 華子日本行きました。
- Hanako to nihon e ikimashita.
- I went to Japan with Anako.


The particle ''よ'' (yo) : the emphasis

The particle ''よ'' can be used as an exclamation mark in English to express a strong emotion. In the text, this particle is used to amplify the sense of the sentence; the speaker knows something that the person to whom he is talking to doesn't know and he is self confident. In this second case, ''よ'' is mainly used by the women.


''でも'' (demo): but



- デパートへ行きました。でも何も買いませんでした。
- Depâto e ikimashita. Demo nanimo kaimasen deshita.
- I went to the shopping mall, but I didn't buy anything. (I bought nothing.)


Generally, we use ''でも'' at the beginning of the sentence and rather while speaking than writing.




The negative sentence

We have already seen that the negative form of ''です'' (desu) is ''ではありません'' (dewa arimasen).

When it comes to the other verbs, the "-masu" at the end is being replaced with "-masen" :

食べます食べません
飲みます飲みません
話します話しません
話せます話せません
読みます読みません
聞きます聞きません
見ます見ません
しますしません





- 日本語話せます
- Nihongo wo hanasemasu.
- I speak Japanese.

- ドイツ語話せません
- Doitsugo wo hanasemasen.
- I do not speak German.


The past negative sentence

To obtain a past negative sentence, you just have to add ''でした'' (deshita) to the negative form of the verb.





- 何も食べませんでした
- Nanimo tabemasen deshita.
- I did not eat something. (I ate nothing.)

- 何も見ませんでした
- Nanimo mimasen deshita.
- I did not see something. (I saw nothing.)


The ''-mashou'' form

In English, it means "Let's do that," "Let's go" or "Let's sleep."

The structure is simple:

行きます => 行きましょう
食べます => 食べましょう




- 明日、映画館行きましょう
- Ashita, eigakan e ikimashou.
- Let's go to the movie theater tomorrow.

- 今晩、魚食べましょう
- Konban, sakana wo tabemashou.
- Let's eat fish tonight.

lecture-japonais

Katakana




de
to
do
i
tsu