bouton
Choose your language: francais | english
accueil
japanese sweets
Coming soon: Lessons of Chinese and Thai!
logo Ecole Tokyo
logo Aizuya Inn
logo TokyoStay



Express lesson of Japanese No.1

The three Express lessons are meant for the people who want to learn a very basic Japanese in a minimum amount of time. They don't replace the real courses and are only designed to help you fend for yourself a little bit in Japanese. They will mostly benefit people who leave for Japan and want to learn a ''survival'' type of Japanese before leaving.
In the Express lessons, you will learn a few ways to communicate (how to give your opinion, ask for directions, etc.) in a simple and easy to remember Japanese. The Japanese that you will learn here can be used by a man as well as a woman in most of the situations you will have to face during your trip.

Summary :
Express lesson No.1: to give your opinion
Express lesson No.2: to fend for yourself
Express lesson No.3: politeness expressions and useful expressions



How to express what I think or am feeling
The easiest way to communicate is to use the following sentence structure:

adjective + desu.


The word "desu" is being pronounced [dess]. In this case, it translates into "It is..." and allows us to get simple sentences such as "It is pretty," "It is warm," "It is expensive," etc.

Examples :



kirei desu. => It is pretty.
• oishii desu. => It is delicious.
• omoshiroi desu. => It is interesting.


Here is a list of useful adjectives:



oishii
kawaii
omoshiroi
muzukashii
ôkii
chiisai
takai
yasui
atsui
ii
kirei
Tasty/delicious
Cute
Interesting/amusing
Difficult
Big/large
Small
Expensive
Inexpensive/cheap
Warm/hot
Nice
Pretty


Note : There is no gender in Japanese. Example: neko = male or female cat


To get a negation, we replace the last "i" of the adjective with "-kunai".

Example: oishii => oishikunai




• oishii desu. => It is tasty.
• oishikunai desu. => It is not tasty.

• takai desu. => It is expensive.
• takakunai desu. => It is not expensive.


Exceptions : Among the adjectives listed above, there are two exceptions, which are "ii" and "kirei".

In the negative form, "ii" becomes "yokunai" and "kirei" becomes "kirei janai".



• yokunai desu. => It is not nice.

• kirei janai desu. => It is not pretty.


Note: The Japanese often don't use the word "desu" among friends or with the members of their family. In this case, the adjective, being used alone, is sung.

Listen carefully to the pronunciation:



• oishii desu. => It is tasty.
• oishii. => It's tasty.
• yasui. => It's inexpensive.
• muzukashii.=> It's difficult.
• atsui. => It's hot (weather)./It's warm.


Liked/hated

We translate "liked" into "suki" and "hated" into "kirai".




• suki desu. => I like.
• kirai desu. => I hate.


To be a bit more gentle than when using "kirai desu", we can use:




• suki janai desu. => I don't like.


To say that we like something, we will use the following sentence structure:

subject + ga + suki desu.




nihon ga suki desu. => I like Japan.

sakana ga kirai desu. => I hate fish.

Note: Don't mistake "kirai" (hated) for "kirei" (pretty).


Useful vocabulary:



nihon
nihonjin
furansu
furansujin
sakana
niku
sake
tabako
Japan
Japanese (person)
France
French (person)
Fish
Meat
Alcohol
Cigarettes



The question

By simply using "ka" at the end of a basic sentence, we turn it into a question:




• omoshiroi desu. => It is interesting.
• omoshiroi desu ka. => Is it interesting?
• niku ga suki desu. => I like meat.
• niku ga suki desu ka. => Do you like meat?

Note that we often omit to use the pronouns (I, you, he, etc.…) in Japanese. The context is often good enough to guess what it is.



To amplify/to tone down

In order to amplify or tone down what we say, we use an adverb in front of the adjective, just like in English.




• ii desu. => It is good.
totemo ii desu. => It is very good.
• muzukashii desu. => It is difficult.
chotto muzukashii desu. => It is a little bit difficult.


Useful vocabulary :



totemo
chotto
hontô ni
zenzen (+ negative verb)
Very
A little bit
Really
Not at all (+ negative verb)



logo
Author: Tev

logo
Translator: Jass